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Pediatric Nephrology

This specialty deals with childhood kidney and urinal tract disorders and their consequences.

Although a number of rare nephrological disorders exist, the most frequent ones are ordinary diseases every child suffers from at least once, such as urinary tract infections. Bedwetting is very common problem amongst children, even over the age of 6 which, apart from psychological reasons, can also be caused by kidney or bladder disorders.

Nephrological diseases are often latent and asymptomatic at first, but in an advanced state, they may become noticeable by causing weakness, a lack of appetite, headaches and anemia.

However, certain diseases (kidney stones, inflammations) involve acute complaints (pain, fever, dysuria).

Kidney disorders are diagnosed based on family medical history, by thorough physical examination, laboratory tests (blood test, urinalysis) and diagnostic imaging methods (for e.g. ultrasound).

Examination methods:

  • Laboratory tests (blood test, urinalysis)
  • Immunological examinations
  • Imaging examinations (abdominal ultrasound, isotopic examinations, X-ray examinations, CT, MRI)
  • Endoscopic examinations
  • Kidney biopsy


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